PG Syllbus

First Year M.V.Sc.
Veterinary Biochemistry
Semester I: VBC 601 (Chemistry of Animal Cell)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1]         Pre-biotic world and chemical evolution.
2-3]      Cellular architecture and molecular organization of cell.
4]         Metabolic functions of cell.
5]         Thermodynamics,
6]         Chemical equilibrium and standard state.
7-8]      Living cell as steady state and open system obeying laws of thermodynamics.
9]         Minimum energy conformation.
10-11]  Quantum mechanical calculation. 
12]       ∆G and ATP.
13]       Properties of water.
14]       Homeostasis
15]       Colloids and determination of size of colloidal particles.
16]       Brownian motion, precipitation, mutual precipitation and protective colloids.
17]       Dialysis and ultrafiltration
18-19]  Donnan’s theory of membrane equilibrium, membrane hydrolysis
20-21]  Application of physicochemical laws in living organisms (osmosis, viscosity, surface forces, adsorption, etc.)
22]       Bronsted’s theory of Acids and Bases, titratable and actual acidity.
23]       Determination of pH, Henderson – Hasselbalch Equation
24]       Buffers and factors affecting buffering capacity.
25]       Bicarbonate buffer system, Phosphate buffer system,
26]       Protein buffer system and Haemoglobin buffer system.
27]       Amino acid buffer system, buffer of RBC’s and plasma.
28-29]  Chemical basis of oral and parental fluid/electrolyte therapies
30]       Bacterial toxigenic diarrhoeas
31]       Problem solving – Lecture1 to12.
32]       Problem solving – Lecture13 to30.
Semester I: VBC 602 (Techniques in Biochemistry)
Credit Hours: 0 + 2 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Practical No.
1]         Solving problems using Henderson–Hasselbalch equation regarding pH.
2]         Determination of pKa and buffer concentration
3]         Calculation of normality.
4]         Principle and application of colorimetry and spectrophotometry.
5]         Application NMR-X ray crystallography. (Theoritocal back ground).
6]         Principle and application of Paper Chromatography.
7]         Principle and application of Thin Layer Chromatography.
8]         Principles and applications of Column chromatography.
9]         Partition chromatography and adsorption co-efficient.
10]       Quantitative and qualitative chromatography of amino acids.
11]       Quantitative and qualitative chromatography of lipids.
12]       Quantitative and qualitative chromatography of sugars. (Theoritocal back ground)
13]       Elution following Column chromatography. 
14]       Gas chromatography. (Theoritocal back ground)
15]       Packing of column and choice of detectors and densitometry.
16]       Application of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis of proteins.
17]       Electrophoresis of nucleic acids.
18]       Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and molecular weight determination.
19]       Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and molecular weight determination.
20]       Densitometry procedures and quantitative assays.
21]       Immuno-electrophoresis and its applications.
22-23]  Preparation of agar/agarose gel for immuno-electrophoresis.
24]       Isoelectrofocussing.
25]       Isotacophoresis.
26]       Molecular sieving and its application in Biochemistry.
27]       General properties of dextran, acrylamide, agar and other media used for gel filtration.
28]       Ultracentrifugation– its principle and use.
29-30]  Preparative analytical and density gradient ultracentrifugation.
31]       Fractionation of sub-cellular components.
32]       Molecular weight determination using ultracentrifuge.
Semester I: VBC 603 (Applications of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Biology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1]         Nucleotides and nucleic acids.
2]         High order structures, cohesions and condensins in chromosome structure.
3]         SMC proteins and sequencing.
4]         Mutation and evolution.
5]         DNA libraries.
6]         Bacterial RNA polymerase.
7]         RNA interference.
8]         DNA replication.
9]         RNA synthesis.
10]       Control of gene expression.
11]       DNA microarrays/chips.
12]       PCR and factors affecting it.
13]       r-DNA technology in improving domestic animals.
14]       RELP, Gene and gene products.
15]       Genetic changes in hereditary diseases, cancer and detection using DNA probes.
16]       Gene Therapy, DNA vaccines, anti-tumor antibodies.
17]       Telomerases and Topoisomerases in treatment of diseases.
18]       Staphylococcus resistance to erythromycin.
19]       Peptide bonds and protein structure.
20]       Acid-base properties and stereochemistry of proteins.
21]       Side chain modifications and biological activities of proteins.
22]       Green fluorescent protein and use.
23]       Polypeptide diversity, protein purification and analysis.
24]       Protein sequencing, reconstructing the protein sequence.
25]       Gene duplication and protein families.
26]       Protein modules, combinatorial peptide libraries folding.
27]       Structural bio-informatics.
28]       Protein structure prediction, designing and Proteomics.
29]       Drug molecules, myoglobin and haemoglobin.
30]       Mechanism and co-operativity in Hb.
31]       High altitude adaptation in ruminants and equines.
32]       Use of amino acid analysis in disease diagnosis.
Semester I: VBC 604 (Biochemistry of Biomolecules: Carbohydrates Lipids and Membrane’s Structure)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
UNIT I          
1]         Carbohydrates: structure
2]         Glycoconjugates in cell surface, extra cellular matrix,
3]         Sugar code functions, peptidoglycan-specific antibiotics
4]         Cellular effects of Insulin
5]         Glucose supply and removal
6]         Ruminal fermentation
7]         Role of liver
8]         Glucose tolerance, indirect monitoring of blood glucose
9]         Ketone bodies
UNIT II         
10]       Lipid classification,
11]       Metabolism of LCFA, TAG, PL,
12]       Sphingolipids, cholesterol, lipoproteins
13]       Regulation of lipid metabolism in fed and fasted states
14]       Regulation of FA oxidation, fas as regulatory molecules
15]       Glucose production and fas in type II diabetes
16]       Ketone bodies as fuel.
UNIT III       
17]       Lipid bilayers, lipid motility,
18]       Integral membrane proteins, lipid linked proteins, peripheral membrane proteins
19]       Fluid mosaic model, membrane skeleton,
20]       Lipid asymmetry, vesicle trafficking
21]       Secretory pathway, membrane rafts
22]       Caveolae fusion
23]       Lung surfactant
24]       Structure of bacterial rhodopsin
25]       Thermodynamics of membrane transport
26]       Ionophores, porins, ion channels, aquaporins, transport proteins
27]       P and F types (Na+ – K+ ) atpases
28]       Ca , Ion–gradient, Gap Junction,
29]       Cl–HCO-  exchanger
30]       Cardiac  2+3 glycosides
31]       Abnormalities in cell membrane fluidity
32]       Haemolyticanaemia
Semester I: VBC 605 (Enzyme Catalysis, Kinetics, Inhibition and Regulation)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1]         Introduction to the enzymes their classification and functions.
2]         Enzyme activation energy.
3]         Mechanisms of acid-base reaction co-ordination.
4]         Mechanisms of covalent reaction co-ordination.
5]         Mechanisms of metal ion reaction co-ordination. 
6]         Proximity and orientation effects.
7]         Preferential transitional state binding. 
8]         Chemical kinetics of reaction.
9]         Enzyme kinetics of reaction.
10]       Kinetic data analysis.
11]       Bisubstrate reactions.
12-13]  Competitive, Uncompetitive, Mixed inhibitors.
14]       Allosteric regulation.
15]       Enzymes in drug designing.
16]       Enzymes in drug discovery.
17]       Bioavailability and toxicity.
18]       Enzymes in clinical trials. 
19]       Cytochrome P450 and adverse drug reactions.
20]       Synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycans.
21]       Synthesis of Oxygenases.
22]       Synthesis of mixed function oxidases.
23]       Enzyme linked diagnostics.
24]       Lysozymes.
25]       Serine proteases.
26]       Physiology and tumor cell metastasis.
27]       Nerve poisons.
28]       Blood coagulation cascade.
29]       Equine immuno-deficiency enzyme inhibitors.
30]       Suicide activators (DFMO for inhibition of ornithine decarboxylases in trypanosomiasis).
31]       Problem solving – Lecture1 to12.
32]       Problem solving – Lecture13 to30.
Semester II: VBC 606 (Metabolism – I: Carbohydrates and Lipids)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
UNIT I          
1]         Metabolic control,
2]         Analyses for enzymes limiting the flux through a pathway.
3]         Trophic strategies,
4]         Universal mapping of metabolic pathways
5]         Thermodynamic relationships. G,
6]         ATP and phosphoryl group transfer
7]         Coupled reactions, thioesters,
8]         NAD+ and FAD.
UNIT II         
9]         Overview of carbohydrate and lipid cycles,
10]       Control of glycolysis
11]       Glycolysis in cancer cells
12]       Control of pentose phosphate pathways
13]       Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
14]       Control of glycogen metabolism
15]       Control of gluconeogenesis
16]       GSD.
17]       Regulation of citric acid cycle
18]       Pathways that use citric acid intermediates
19]       Sugar interconversions and nucleotide – linked sugar formation
20]       Disorders associated with impairment of metabolism
UNIT III       
21]       Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
22]       Generation of heat by uncoupling in brown adipose tissue.  
23]       Regulation of fatty acid metabolism
24]       Inhibitors of fatty acids biosynthesis
25]       Sphingolipid degradation
26]       Lipid storage disease
27]       Regulation of cholesterol synthesis
28]       PGs in NSAID
29]       Leukotrienes
30]       HETEs
31]       Hypersensitivity
32]       Influence of glucose metabolism on lipid metabolism
Semester II: VBC 607 (Metabolism – II: Nucleic Acids and Amino Acids)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
UNIT I          
1]         Overview of pathways of amino acid
2]         Overview of pathways of nucleic acid metabolism
3]         Lysosomal degradation
4]         Ubiquitin
5]         Proteosome
6]         Breakdown of amino acids
7]         Heme biosynthesis and degradation
8]         Biosynthesis of physiologically active amines
9]         Nitric oxide
10]       Homocystein as marker of disease
11-12]  Diseases of amino acid metabolism
13]       Porphyrias
UNIT II         
14]       Nucleotide synthesis and degradation
15]       Inhibition of thymidylate synthesis in cancer therapy
16]       Mutation in coenzyme binding sites and diseases
17]       Forces stabilizing NA structure
18]       Restriction endonucleases
19]       Small inhibitory RNAs
20]       Chromatin organization
21]       Inhibitors of topoisomerases as antibiotic
22]       Anti-cancer agents interfering with purine and pyramidine metabolism
UNIT III        
23]       Viral nucleic acids
24]       DNA damage and repair
25]       Telomerase
26]       Ageing and cancer
27]       Topoisomerases as drug targets
28]       Chemotherapy can target precursors of DNA synthesis
29]       Antibiotics and toxins that target RNA polymerase
30]       Lysosomal enzymes
31]       Gout
32]       Diseases in purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolic impairment
Semester II: VBC 608 (Metabolism – III: Integration and Regulation)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
UNIT I          
1]         Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism
2]         Regulation of lipid metabolism
3]         Regulation of protein metabolism
4]         Regulation of nucleic acid metabolism
5]         Integration all metabolic pathways
6]         Organ specialization in fuel metabolism: Brain, muscle
7]         Organ specialization in fuel metabolism: adipose tissue, liver, kidney
8]         Inter organ metabolic pathways
9]         Hormonal control of fuel metabolism
10]       Tracing metabolic fates perturbing the system
UNIT III       
11]       Signal transduction, gated ion channels
12]       G-proteins
13]       Adenylatecyclase, cGMP,  Ca2+
14]       Receptor tyrosine kinase
15]       Protein phosphatases
16]       Interaction of Ca2+ with phosphoserine/tyrosine
17]       Integrations of proteins/ messengers in signal transduction
18]       Drugs and toxins
19]       Cell cycle and CDKs that affect cell signaling
UNIT IV       
20]       Oncogenes and cancers
21]       Mitochondrial genes and diseases
22]       Reactive oxygen species
23]       Cyanide and arsenic poisoning
24]       Metabolic inter-relationships in obesity, diabetes, and cancer
25]       Metabolic inter-relationships in aerobic and anaerobic exercise in horses
26]       Metabolic inter-relationships in pregnancy, lactation and stress injury
27]       Mitochondria in apoptosis and oxidative stress, cell suicide
28]       Liver diseases
29]       Renal diseases
30]       Acid-base balance
31]       Metabolic/sensory transduction in nervous tissue
Vision, blood coagulation
Semester II: VBC 609 (Central Dogma and Protein)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
UNIT I            
1]         Overview of transcription and translation in eukaryotes
2]         Collision between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase
3]         Inhibitors of transcription
4]         Introns
5]         Evolution and expansion of the genetic code
6]         The effects of antibiotics and toxins on protein synthesis     
7]         X – chromosome inactivation
8]         Eukaryotic gene expression
9]         Protein targeting
UNIT III         
10]       Actin structure
11]       Microfilament dynamics
12]       Actin-myosin reacting cycle
13]       Tubulin dimmer
14]       Microtubules dynamics
15]       Kinensins and dyeins
UNIT IV         
16]       Antigen-antibody binding
17]       Cytokines
18]       Principles of immunochemical methods
19]       Agglutination, precipitation
20]       Typing of major histo-compatibility antigens
21]       Blood group substances in farm animals
UNIT V           
22]       Proteins as infectious agents (prions – BSE).
23]       Protein misfolding and aggregation
24]       Plasma proteins, synthesis, functions
25]       Influences of physiological factors and inflammation on proteins
26]       Dysproteinemias
27]       Defects in collagen synthesis
28]       Transmissible multiple drug resistance
29]       Transcription factors and cardiovascular diseases
30]       Transferrin
31]       Lactoferrin
32]       Ferritin and Ceruloplasmin
Semester II: VBC 610 (Clinical Biochemistry of Animals)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1-3]      Disturbances of gastro-intestinal function- Irritable Bowel Syndrone Ulcerative Collitis
4-6]      Disturbances of rumen function. – Bloat (Tympany), urea poisoning, acute rumen indigestion, Lactic acidosis
7-8]      Pickled pigs and malignant hyperthermia.
9-10]    Diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Eg. mitochondrialdiseases
11]       Myocardial infarction,
12]       Respiratory distress syndrome.
13-14]  Primary renal dysfunctions and test, 
15-16]  Doping. Problems in game horses.
17-18]  Enzymes of diagnostic importance.
19-20]  Toxicity of ammonia in animals.Genetic defects in urea cycle.
21]       Lysosomal storage diseases.
22-23]  ATP synthase inhibitory protein during ischemia. Ischaemic – reperfusion injury.
24-25]  Molecular oncology and tumor markers.
26]       CSF characteristics in diseases.
27]       Clinical Biochemistry in toxicology.
28]       Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c, fructosamine.
29]       Deranged glucose metabolism in cancerous tissue.
30]       Free Radical damage.
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1-16
32]       Problem solving for lectures 17-30
Semester III: VBC 606 (Biochemical Basis of Diseases of Domestic Animals)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1]         Diabetes mellitus
2-3]      Hyperinsulemia, galactosemia, hypoglycaemia of baby pigs,
4]         Glycogen Storage Disease.
5]         Carbohydrate balance in ruminants.
6]         Biochemical alterations in body fluids of ruminants in hypoglycaemia,
7]         Ruminant ketosis. 
8]         Hypercholesterolemia,
9]         Atherosclerosis,
10-11]  hyperlipidemia in canine, feline, equine.
12]       Pathophysiology of ketonemia.
13-14]  Ketosis associated with fasting, diabetes, pregnancy, lactation and post exercise.
15]       Anemias of the newborn,
16-17]  Cytosolic enzyme deficiencies and membrane abnormalities in erythrocytes.
18]       Porphyrins and porphyrias.
19]       Disorders of iron metabolism,
21]       Neutrophil function defects and its testing.
22]       Equine immuno-deficiency.
23-24]  Hepatic insufficiencies and its laboratory assessment
25-26]  Pancreatitis and insuffiency
27-28]  Metabolic diseases of Ca, P, Mg metabolism
29]       Iron overload and injection
30]       Inorganic polyphosphate metabolism
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1 – 16
32]       Problem solving for lectures 17 – 30
Semester III: VBC 612 (Endocrinology and Reproductive Biochemistry)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1-2]      Mechanism of hormone action
3]         Receptor binding,
4-6]      Biosynthesis of hormones and factors
7-8]      Metabolic aspects in physio-pathology of hormones, factors, and minerals. 
9-10]    Metabolic functions of the hormones of the hypothalamus
11-12]  Metabolic functions of pituitary
13]       Metabolic functions of Thyroid
14]       Metabolic functions of parathyroid
15]       Metabolic functions of pancreas
16-17]  Metabolic functions of adrenal
18]       Metabolic functions of pineal
19]       Metabolic functions of ovaries
20]       Metabolic functions of testes
21-22]  Biochemistry of prostaglandins and related agents.
23-24]  Clinical endocrine aspects in production in domestic animals
25-26] Clinical endocrine aspects in reproduction status in domestic animals
27-28]  Clinical endocrine aspects in production in poultry
29-30] Clinical endocrine aspects in reproduction status in poultry
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1-15
32]       Problem solving for lectures 15-30
Semester III: VBC 613 (Biochemical Basis of Animal Production)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
1-2]      Chemistry of milk lipids,
3-4]      Chemistry of milk proteins,
5-6]      Chemistry of milk carbohydrates,
7-8]      Chemistry of milk minerals,
9-10]    Chemistry of milk vitamins,
11-12]  Chemistry of milk pigments and enzymes.
13-14]  Structure of milk lipids, fat globular membranes, modification of milk fat.
15-16]  Milk proteins – casein, amino acid composition, whey proteins, immunoglobulins, genetic polymorphism.
17-18]  Carbohydrates: structure and sweetness.
19-20]  The biochemistry controlling postmortem energy metabolism mechanisms.
21-22]  Application of genomic technologies to the improvement of meat quality of farm animals.
23-24]  Identification of meat quality parameters by proteomics.
25-26]  Application of proteomics to understand the molecular mechanisms behind meat quality.
27-28]  Oxidative stability of post mortem muscles from sheep of various ages. 
29-30]  Metabolic demands of draft animals, and biochemical aspects of work and kinesiology.
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1-15
32]       Problem solving for lectures 15-30